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What Is Bill Of Quantities (BOQ)?


A bill of quantities (BOQ) is a document created by a quantity surveyor or cost consultant that contains information on the quantity of materials, labour, and their costs in a construction project.


The Bill of Quantities is an essential part of the tender. Without a suitable Bill of Quantities, a tender is incomplete. It generally includes information such as the scope of work, the cost of labour, the materials utilized, the number of workers employed, and so on. Contractors can use this information and data to quote rates for their specific work.


A Bill of Quantities ensures that the project runs smoothly and without complications. A Bill of Quantities is sometimes used as a reference for future projects.


After a construction, design has been completed and specifications have been created, BOQs help in cost computation. It acts as an important link between stakeholders, consultants/engineers, and contractors.


Purposes of Bill of Quantities

  • To make the tendering process more uniform.

  • For establishing a method for valuing the project that is both transparent and exact.

  • To provide a thorough description of the work and its rates, as well as the overall cost.

  • To help quantity surveyors in ensuring that individual contractors have filed valid tenders that comply with the specifications.

Significance of Bill of Quantities (BOQ)

  • One of the most essential documents in the construction industry is the bill of quantities.

  • A Bill of Quantities offers a contractor a clear picture of the whole project about which contractor has to work on it.

  • BOQ gives a base to the clients for valuing, comparing tenders, and comparing contracts.

  • It's required for preparing the contractors' final bill.


General Format of a BOQ


BOQ is prepared in tabular form which includes Item nos., Item description, Quantity, Unit of measurement, Unit rate, Amount, and Remarks (if any). BOQ's basic format is as follows:




How to Prepare Bill of Quantities


There are three primary phases to creating a BOQ. The following are the details:


1. Description of work

This is the first and most important stage in making a BOQ. The work to be carried out is detailed and written in simple words so that the contractor knows exactly what he or she is liable for.


2. Quantity take-off

The quantity of work is calculated and taken off once the work is described. It provides a precise estimate of the quantity of work that a contractor will be responsible for. The amount of work is measured in Cu. m, Sq. m, rm, foot, and other units as per specifications.


3. Rates per unit of work

The final stage in creating a BOQ is describing the rates of work items per unit. Each item's rates are calculated. Market survey, current rates, schedule of rates (SOR), and other criteria are considered. Lastly, the total quantity of work is multiplied by the unit rate of the item of work to calculate the total amount for a specific item of work.


Common Errors in Bill of Quantities Preparation

  1. Error in calculating the quantity of work and the rates of work items.

  2. Inaccurate assumptions about certain work items.

  3. The incorrect measurement is taken.

  4. Work items can be counted twice.

  5. Taking non-essential items to work.

  6. Taking non-essential items to work.


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